1 Kenneth A. Kitchen, On the Reliability of the Old Testament, (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2003) 17 & 505 note 30 and James B. Pritchard, Ancient Near Eastern Texts, (Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1950) 278.

2 James B. Pritchard, Ancient Near Eastern Texts, (Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1950) 320 and BAR May/June 1994. See chapter Hazor: Strata VIII and VII (c.875 820 BCE) The Omri Dynasty.

3 Hayim Tadmor, The Inscriptions of Tiglath-pileser III King of Assyria (Jerusalem: Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, 1994) 170-171 and James B. Pritchard, Ancient Near Eastern Texts, (Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1950) 282.

4 BAR 24:03 (May/June 1998) and Oded Bustanay, Ahaz's appeal to Tiglath-Pileser III in the Context of the Assyrian Policy of Expansion (Haifa: Haifa, vol. 3, University of Haifa, 1993) 63-71 and

http://www.robert-deutsch.com/en/monographs/m14/.

5 Nachum Avigad and Binyamin Sass, Corpus of West Semitic Stamp Seals (Jerusalem: Israel Academy, Israel Exploration Society, Israel Institute of Archaeology, Hebrew University, 1997) 181-182.

6 See index to Prichard's Ancient Near Eastern Texts.

7 BAR 17:04 (1991)

8 William. F. Albright, The Discovery of an Aramaic Inscription Relating to King Uzziah, (Chicago: Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, vol. 44, 1931_ 8-10

9 Hayim Tadmor, The Inscriptions of Tiglath-pileser III King of Assyria (Jerusalem: Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, 1994) 273-274.

10 Tsvi Schneider, Azaryahu Son of Hilkiyahu (Priest?) on a City of David Bulla (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Journal, vol. 38, 1988) 139141.

11 BAR Mar/Apr 1999

12 See chapter Jerusalem- The Babylonian Invasion & BAR 17:04 (July/Aug 1991and Nahman Avigad, Baruch the scribe and Jerahmeel the King's son Imprint (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Journal, vol. 28, 1978) 52-56.

13 e.g. James B. Pritchard, Ancient Near Eastern Texts, (Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1950) 309, footnote 5.

14 Zakkur Stele is a basalt victory stele discovered in 1903 in Tel Afis, Syria. The Aramaic inscription is called after King Zakkur of Hamath who dedicated it. It links several Syrian city-states and the threat of Assyria with the Biblical account. Albright translated part of the text to read Ben-hadad of Aram.

15 Alan R. Millard, Tyndale Bulletin, 41:2 , 1990 273-274.

16 See chapter Jerusalem- The House of David.

17 BAR 13:05 (Sept/Oct 1987)

18 Anthony J. Spalinger, Esarhaddon and Egypt : An analysis of the First Invasion of Egypt (Orientalia, vol. 43, 1974) 295-326 and Donald J. Wiseman, An Esarhaddon cylinder from Nimrud (Iraq, vol.14, 1952) 54-60 and Albrecht Goetze, Esarhaddon's Inscription from the Inanna Temple in Nippur (Ann Arbor, Michigan: Journal of Cuneiform Studies, vol. 17, 1963) 119-131.

19 Contra Apion 1:18.

20 Reported in Jerusalem Post Jul 31, 2008 22:04 and Updated Aug 3, 2008 10:33 & in The Sacremento Union Oct 17 2008

21 See chapter Jerusalem- The Babylonian Invasion & BAR 11:06 (Nov/Dec 1985

22 See Chapter Hazor: Strata VIII and VII (c.875 820 BCE) The Omri Dynasty

23 See above note on Zakkur Stele. Isr ael Eph'al, Hazael's Booty Inscriptions (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Journal, vol. 39, 1989) 192-200.

24 James B. Pritchard, Ancient Near Eastern Texts, (Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1950) 287,288

25 Kenneth A. Kitchen, On the Reliability of the Old Testament (Grand Rapids, William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2003) 19 and Nadav Naaman, Hezekiah's Fortified Cities and the LMLK Stamps (Cleveland, Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, vol. 261, 1986) 5-2 and BAR 01:04 1975.

26 Wayne Pitard, The Identity of the Bir-hadad of the Melqart Stele (Chicago: Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, vol. 272, 1988) 3-21. The Melqart Stele was found in the late 1930's north of Aleppo, Syria. The stele, a little over 3-feet in height, depicts the Aramean god Melqart. The stele is an important source for the history of ninth century Aram.

27 BAR 13:05 (Sept/Oct 1987)

28 Contra Apion 1:18

29 Kenneth A. Kitchen, On the Reliability of the Old Testament (Grand Rapids, William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2003) 16.

30James B. Pritchard, Ancient Near Eastern Texts (Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1950) 284 & Hayim Tadmor, The inscriptions of Tiglath-pileser III King of Assyria (Jerusalem: Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, 1994) 277-278.

31 BAR 21:06 (Nov'Dec 1995)

32 Wayne Pitard, Ancient Damascus: A Historical Study of the Syrian City-State from Earliest Times Until Its Fall to the Assyrians in 732 B.C.E. (Warsaw, Indiana: Eisenbrauns, 1987) 163-165. In 1967, a stele of the Assyrian Adad-nirari III was found at Tell al-Rimah, 40 miles west of Mosul. It records a campaign to the west in which Adad-nirari received tribute from Jehoash, king of Israel.

33 James B. Pritchard, Ancient Near Eastern Texts, (Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1950) 308.

34 See chapter Hazor: Strata VIII and VII (c.875 820 BCE)- In Search of Hazael

35 Nahman Avigad, The Jotham Seal from Elath (Cleveland: Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, vol. 163, 1961) 8-22 and BAR 24:03 (May/June 1998)

36 See Hazor: Strata VIII and VII (c.875 820 BCE)- The Omri Dynasty. Nadav Naaman, Jehu son of Omri: Legitimizing a Loyal Vassal by His Overlord (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Journal, vol. 48, 1998) 236-238.

37 www.archaeologynews.org/DLink.asp?ID=53139 & http://www.azure.org.il/magazine/magazine.asp?id=272

38 See Chapter Jerusalem The Babylonian Invasion & BAR 13:05 (Sep/Oct 1987

39 BAR Jan/Feb 1981

40 Nachum Avigad, Israel Exploration Journal, vol. 14, 1964, 274.

41 Hayim Tadmor, The Inscriptions of Tiglath-pileser III King of Assyria, (Jerusalem: Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, 1994) 106-107 and Louis D. Levine, Menahem and Tiglat-Pileser : A New Synchronism (Chicago: Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, vol. 206 , 1972) 40-42

See chapter Hazor: Strata VIII and VII (c.875 820 BCE)-The Omri Dynasty, In Search of Hazael.

42 James B. Pritchard, Ancient Near Eastern Texts (Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1950) 291

43 Nachum Avigad and Binyamin Sass, Corpus of West Semitic Stamp Seals (Jerusalem: Israel Academy, Israel Exploration Society, Israel Institute of Archaeology, Hebrew University, 1997) 55.

44 Robert .D. Biggs and John A. Brinkman, From the Workshop of the Chicago Assyrian Dictionary: Studies Presented to A. Leo Oppenheim (Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1964) 50-53.

45 BAR May/June 1994

46 William F. Albright, The Nebuchadnezzar and Neriglissar Chronicles (Cleverland, Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, vol. 143, 1956) 28-33 and Stefan Zawadzki, Nebuchadnezzar and Tyre in the Light of New Texts from the Ebabbar Archives in Sippar (Tel Aviv: Eretz-Israel, vol. 27, 2003) 276-281.

47 http://www.israelnationalnews.com/News/News.aspx/123041

48 See chapter Hazor: Strata VIII and VII (c.875 820 BCE)-The Omri Dynasty & Kenneth A. Kitchen, On the Reliability of the Old Testament (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2003) 17.

49 James B. Pritchard, Ancient Near Eastern Texts (Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1950) 284 and Hayim Tadmor, The inscriptions of Tiglath-pileser III King of Assyria (Jerusalem: Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, 1994) 140-141

50 Kenneth A. Kitchen, On the Reliability of the Old Testament (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2003) 503, note 13.

51 http://www.israelnationalnews.com/News/News.aspx/123041

52 E.g. Julian Edgeworth Reade, Sargon's Campaigns of 720, 716, and 715 B.C. : Evidence from the Sculptures (Chicago: Journal of Near Eastern Studies, vol. 35, 1976) 95-104.

53 See chapter Lachish: Level III (c. 782 700 BCE) Royal City and the Assyrian Conquest

54 BAR 17:04 (Jul/Aug 1991)

55 Kenneth A. Kitchen, On the Reliability of the Old Testament (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2003) 506, note 45

56 Kenneth A. Kitchen, On the Reliability of the Old Testament (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2003) 503, note 17

57 Nachum Avigad and Binyamin Sass, Corpus of West Semitic Stamp Seals (Jerusalem: Israel Academy, Israel Exploration Society, Israel Institute of Archaeology, Hebrew University, 1997) 181-182

58 See chapter Lachish: Level III (c. 782 700 BCE) Royal City and the Assyrian Conquest.

59 See chapter Lachish: Level V (c. 1000 925 BCE) Pharaoh Shishak Invades.

60 Kenneth A. Kitchen, On the Reliability of the Old Testament (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2003) 15 and BAR 11:06 (Nov/Dec 1985).

61 C. C. Torrey, Sunballat the Horonite (Atlanta: Journal of Biblical Literature, vol. 47, No. , 1928)380-389 and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elephantine_papyri.

62 Wayne Pitard, The Identity of the Bir-hadad of the Melqart Stele (Chicago: Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, vol.272, 1988) 3-21.

63 E.g. Nadav Naaman, Tiglath-pileser III's Campaigns Against Tyre and Israel 734-732 B.C.E (Tel Aviv: Tel Aviv, vol. 22, 1995) 268-278 and Abraham S. Anspacher, Tiglath Pileser III (New York: Columbia University Press, 1912) 2-72.

64 Stanley A. Cook, The Significance of the Elephantine Papyri for the History of Hebrew Religion (Chicago: The American Journal of Theology, vol. 19, no. 3, 1915) 346-382

65 James B. Pritchard, Ancient Near Eastern Texts (Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1950) 308

66 Nachum Avigad and Binyamin Sass, Corpus of West Semitic Stamp Seals (Jerusalem: Israel Academy, Israel Exploration Society, Israel Institute of Archaeology, Hebrew University, 1997) 181-182